If an entity or arrangement treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes acquires, owns or disposes of ADSs or ordinary shares, the U.S. federal income tax treatment of a partner in such partnership generally will depend on the status of the partner and the activities of the partnership. Such a partner or partnership should consult its own tax advisor as to the U.S. federal income tax consequences of acquiring, owning and disposing of our ADSs or ordinary shares.
The summary below is based upon the provisions of the Code, and the U.S. Treasury regulations, rulings and judicial decisions thereunder as of the date hereof, and such authorities may be replaced, revoked or modified, possibly with retroactive effect, so as to result in U.S. federal income tax consequences different from those discussed below. In addition, this summary is based, in part, upon representations made by the depositary to us and assumes that the deposit agreement, and all other related agreements, will be performed in accordance with their terms.
You are urged to consult your own tax advisor with respect to the U.S. federal, as well as state, local and non-U.S., tax consequences to you of acquiring, owning and disposing of ADSs or ordinary shares in light of your particular circumstances, including the possible effects of changes in U.S. federal and other tax laws.
If you hold ADSs, you generally will be treated for U.S. federal income tax purposes as the owner of the underlying ordinary shares that are represented by such ADSs. Accordingly, no gain or loss will be recognized for U.S. federal income tax purposes if you exchange ADSs for the underlying shares represented by those ADSs.
The U.S. Treasury has expressed concern that parties to whom ADSs are released before shares are delivered to the depositary or intermediaries in the chain of ownership between holders and the issuer of the security underlying the ADSs, may be taking actions that are inconsistent with the claiming of foreign tax credits by U.S. Holders of ADSs. These actions would also be inconsistent with the claiming of the reduced rate of tax, described below, applicable to dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders. Accordingly, the creditability of non-U.S. withholding taxes (if any), and the availability of the reduced tax rate for dividends received by certain non-corporate U.S. Holders, each described below, could be affected by actions taken by such parties or intermediaries. For purposes of the summary below, we assume that intermediaries in the chain of ownership between the holder of an ADS and us are acting consistently with the claim of U.S. foreign tax credits by U.S. Holders.
Certain Tax Consequences If We Are a Passive Foreign Investment Company
The rules governing PFICs can result in adverse tax consequences to U.S. Holders. We generally will be classified as a PFIC for any taxable year if (i) at least 75% of our gross income for the taxable year consists of certain types of passive income or (ii) at least 50% of our gross assets during the taxable year, based on a quarterly average and generally determined by value, produce or are held for the production of passive income. Passive income for this purpose generally includes, among other things, dividends, interest, rents, royalties, gains from commodities and securities transactions and gains from the disposition of assets that produce or are held for the production of passive income. In determining whether a foreign corporation is a PFIC, a pro-rata portion of the income and assets of each corporation in which it owns, directly or indirectly, at least a 25% interest (by value) is taken into account. Under this rule, we should be deemed to own the assets and to receive the income of our wholly-owned subsidiaries for purposes of the PFIC determination. If we are classified as a PFIC in any taxable year with respect to which you own ADSs or ordinary shares, we generally will continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to you in all succeeding taxable years, regardless of whether we continue to meet the tests described above, unless you make the “deemed sale election” described below.
Because we did not have active business income in the taxable year ended June 30, 2020, we believe we were a PFIC in tax year 2020. We may also be a PFIC in future taxable years. The determination of our PFIC status for any taxable year, however, will not be determinable until after the end of the taxable year, and will depend on, among other things, the composition of our income and assets (which could change significantly during the course of a taxable year) and the market value of our assets for such taxable year, which may be, in part, based on the market price of our ADSs or ordinary shares (which may be especially volatile). The PFIC determination will depend, in part, on whether we are able to generate gross income from mining operations. You should consult your own tax advisor regarding our PFIC status.