cease coverage of us or fail to publish reports on us regularly, demand for the ADSs could decrease, which might cause our price and trading volume to decline. In addition, research and reports that Australian securities or industry analysts publish about us, our business or our ordinary shares may impact the market price of the ADSs.
You may be subject to limitations on transfers of your ADSs.
Your ADSs are transferable on the books of the depositary. However, the depositary may close its transfer books at any time or from time to time when it deems expedient in connection with the performance of its duties. In addition, the depositary may refuse to deliver, transfer or register transfers of ADSs generally when our books or the books of the depositary are closed, or at any time if we or the depositary deems it advisable to do so because of any requirement of law or of any government or governmental body, or under any provision of the deposit agreement, or for any other reason.
Our Constitution and Australian laws and regulations applicable to us may adversely affect our ability to take actions that could be beneficial to our shareholders.
As an Australian company we are subject to different corporate requirements than a corporation organized under the laws of the United States. Our Constitution, as well as the Australian Corporations Act, set forth various rights and obligations that are unique to us as an Australian company. These requirements may operate differently than those of many U.S. companies. You should carefully review the summary of these matters set forth under the section entitled “Additional Information—Share Capital” in our 2019 Form 20-F, as well as our Constitution, which is included as an exhibit to our 2019 Form 20-F, prior to investing in the ADSs.
If we fail to maintain proper internal controls, our ability to produce accurate financial statements or comply with applicable regulations could be impaired.
We are subject to the reporting obligations under the U.S. securities laws. The SEC, as required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, has adopted rules requiring a public company to include a report of management on the effectiveness of such company’s internal control over financial reporting in its annual report on Form 20-F. In addition, once we cease to be an “emerging growth company,” as such term is defined in the JOBS Act, an independent registered public accounting firm for a public company must issue an attestation report on the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting.
If in the future we are unable to conclude that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting or our independent auditors are unwilling or unable to provide us with an unqualified report on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting as required by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, investors may lose confidence in our operating results, the price of the ADSs could decline and we may be subject to litigation or regulatory enforcement actions. In addition, if we are unable to meet the requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, we may not be able to remain listed on Nasdaq.
We believe that we were a passive foreign investment company (“PFIC”), for U.S. federal income tax purposes for the taxable year ended June 30, 2019, and we may be a PFIC in future taxable years, which could have adverse tax consequences for our investors.
The rules governing passive foreign investment companies (“PFICs”), can have adverse consequences for U.S. investors for U.S. federal income tax purposes. Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, or the Code, we will be a PFIC for any taxable year in which, after the application of certain “look-through” rules with respect to our subsidiaries, either (i) 75% or more of our gross income consists of “passive income,” or (ii) 50% or more of the average quarterly value of our assets consist of assets that produce, or are held for the production of, “passive income.” Passive income generally includes interest, dividends, rents, certain non-active royalties and capital gains. As discussed in “Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Certain Tax Consequences If We Are a Passive Foreign Investment Company” in our 2019 Form 20-F, we believe that we were a PFIC for the taxable year ended June 30, 2019 because we did not have active business income in that taxable year, and we may be a PFIC in future taxable years.
If we are characterized as a PFIC for any taxable year during which a U.S. Holder (as defined in “Taxation—U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations” in our 2019 Form 20-F) holds ADSs or ordinary shares, we generally would continue to be treated as a PFIC with respect to that U.S. Holder for all succeeding years during which the U.S. Holder holds ADSs or ordinary shares, even if we ceased to meet the threshold